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Poison Rings Uses in History

the age of knights

The poison ring is one of the most interesting items of jewelry ever created. The subject of much history as well as literature, the poison ring became an important part of the age of knights. Today, it is a highly prized antique with some fetching a good price in antique auctions and retail stores. You can find the rings sporting many different designs that range from simple to ornate. Such rings were meant to compliment the wearer and become part of their overall fashion sense. This was mostly because the rings themselves were not designed to stand out. Rather, they were to look like any other ring of that time so that no one would suspect that it had an ulterior purpose.

What makes the poison ring so intriguing starts with its origins which had nothing to do with poison, at least at the beginning when they had a far more pleasing use.

What is a Poison Ring?
Sometimes called a Borgia Ring, it looks like a typical ring with a gem or design at the center. But that usually covers a small secret compartment. Accessing the compartment means the wearer of the ring can pull out one of the following.

  • Poison
  • Perfume
  • Messages
  • Religious Relics and More

Basically, a poison ring is a ring with a small storage compartment but is designed to conceal that fact. Most poison rings look indistinguishable from rings that have no secret compartment and that is by purpose. For the assassin to wear the ring under the noses of those who might suspect foul play. In that manner, they can deliver the poison and get away all without being suspected.

Although the exact origins are not known, it is believed that rings with secret compartments were first developed in the Far East and perhaps in India thousands of years ago. They were primarily used as a convenient method of carrying spice. The spice would be sprinkled from the ring onto the food by the wearer. However, when the ring itself made it to the Eastern Mediterranean and into Europe, another use for it was found. The first known use of the ring as a container of poison comes from 183 BCE when Hannibal, a Carthaginian leader of great renown, killed himself by taking the poison in his ring after his forces were defeated by the Romans. It is believed that poison rings had made it to Europe and North Africa long before 183 BCE, but there are no existing records of its use being found until that time. It is generally believed that poison rings were used in the Roman Empire which means that it spread throughout Europe and North Africa. Given the wide amount of trade with India through countries such as Egypt, such rings may not have been commonplace, but there were recognizable and available for purchase.

Use of Poison Rings
For the first thousand or so years, it was believed that poison rings were mostly used by the wearer to commit suicide if he or she was going to face a more unpleasant means of death. By killing themselves, they could avoid torture, slavery, or a more painful means of dying compared to the poison itself. It was not until much later did the ring become an instrument of assassination. It is not known when such rings were used as a means of killing another person, although it doubtless happened during the times of the Roman Empire. But the use of the ring by assassins became better known during the Medieval times as Europe was divided into many different countries. Within such countries, smaller amounts of land were ruled by lesser nobility which meant that their elimination provided advantage to others.

The Borgia Ring
A poison ring is often called a Borgia Ring because during the age of knights when the Borgia family, which ruled large parts of Italy along with Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, killed their enemies by use of the poison. It was easier and far more economical to assassinate leaders, particularly royalty from rival factions by stealth. Employing assassins or doing the work themselves by attending functions, slipping the poison into a drink or meal, and then getting away all without being suspected. This is because the high mortality rate of the time made it difficult to know how exactly the person died. Sudden illnesses were commonplace and food poisoning, which was common enough, often had similar symptoms to actual poison. And if they took time for serious symptoms to appear, the assassin could finish their meal, enjoy the event, and leave all without any suspicion.

poison ring

During this time of court intrigue, the poison ring reached its zenith. This is especially true given the access of rival factions along with those inside a noble family that wanted greater power. However, as times changed, so too did the status and importance of the nobility. With central governments becoming more powerful, the use of the poison ring diminished considerably as a weapon.

The Poison Ring Today
The ring itself survives as an antique, an heirloom that was passed down from generation to generation. In royal families and others who held power, the ring might have been kept just in case a rival faction needed to be addressed in a secretive manner. Some poison rings, especially those that have been connected to historic events or important people fetch a considerable price on the antique market. However, the secret compartment of the ring was also used in pendants. By the 19th century, such compartments were used to house small photographs of loved ones so they could be viewed in privacy. What started as a means of delivering poison morphed into a way of keeping the image of loved ones close to the heart.

During the age of knights, the poison ring was a simple tool used to eliminate an unwanted prince, duke, or other important member of royalty or nobility. But in doing so, the intrigue behind the ring itself made it more elaborate and popular.

Best Edibles in Colorado

colorado edibles

CBD-infused edibles have been increasingly getting attention since Colorado opened the weed-gates, and this is for a good reason. Not everyone wants smoke in their lungs to reach their desired high, and edibles offer a reasonable alternative. They are also a favored choice for beginners. They come in the form of many of the beverages you already love, like cookies, chocolates, brownies, etc.

There are a host of CBD edibles available to buy across dispensaries in Colorado, giving you a wide range of choices from which you can select what you think does it for you. So, if you are looking for the best Colorado edibles you can get, we have made the search much easier for you by curating some of the best products:

Stillwater’s Ripple

Now, this is a product you want to try. Its acclaimed versatileness applies to everything – everything! It comes in the form of a flavorless, odorless, sugar-free, fat-free, and marijuana-infused powder that can be added to anything including water without the slightest hint of a change in taste. It is such an innovative product that maximizes your control over your edible experience. Whether you want to apply it to your coffee or some food is totally up to you. Ripple comes in three formulations: 10mg of THC, 50/50 THC/CBD, and 10mg of CBD. This product can be picked up in Smokin Gun Apothecary, a recreational marijuana dispensary in Glendale, Colorado.

Suck It

This fruity flavored candy strikes the perfect balance between sweet and sour that might very well keep you wanting more. Suck It comes in a variety of wildly imaginative flavors, each a unique experience. It is dosed at 2.5mg, 5mg, or 10mg per sweet. So, whether you are into apple, strawberry, or even watermelon flavors, you are assured of a pleasant experience with this product, especially for sublingual dosing.

Love’s Oven

Love’s Oven offers a bunch of delicious baked food that is entirely handmade from scratch with a very high standard of quality. Their options range from the mouth-watering baklava to peanut butter brownies. You just cannot resist how delicious these are. It comes as no surprise that Love’s Oven is one of the leading edible sellers in Colorado. This is due to the high level of attention that they pay to their products, ensuring that the taste, texture, and flavor are all geared to your utmost satisfaction. They also offer strain-specific products, thereby giving you unbridled freedom to determine in detail your experience, which makes it perfect for both recreational and medical use. With their products being sold in over 100 dispensaries in Colorado, they are quite easy to find.


This is one of Colorado’s original infused products; they are well-acclaimed for producing Colorado’s most popular sour gummies. The Wana Brand has had its sights set on the highest level of professionalism, quality, and consistency from the very beginning. This is reflected in their products very much. You should check out their popular sour gummies, which are made from a delicious mix of Grape, Lemon, Green Apple, Water Melon, Raspberry, and Orange flavors, birthing a flavor that is bound to become an instant customer-favorite. In addition to great flavor, Wana’s sour gummies are infused with a high-quality tincture rather than sprayed; and are completely made from gluten-free ingredients.

The brand also recently launched Quick Fast-Acting Gummies, which are designed to have an onset of 5-15 minutes and deliver a more inhalation-like experience for customers that desire such. Wana’s products are available in a variety of CBD and THC ratios, allowing customers to select what dosage works for them.

Coda Signature Chocolate

Coda Signature is a top market-share holder in the cannabis-infused chocolate industry, largely a result of their largely successful and award-winning products. This brand crafts premium edibles featuring bold flavor combinations that blend perfectly with their high-quality cannabis oil. Their product options range from their best-selling truffles to chocolate bars. The intrinsic quality of their products seems to be well appreciated by customers, as four of the top 10 best-selling edible products in Colorado, according to BDS analytics, are manufactured by Coda Signature. Coda Signature Chocolate products are available in over 500 dispensaries across Colorado, so you should be able to get your hands on one of these chocolate perfections with ease.


The first drinkable edible on this list and it is one like no other. Cannapunch drinks are non-carbonated, 100% natural, completely vegan, gluten-free, and made from the highest quality Colorado cannabis. The drinks come in a variety of delightful flavors such as pineapple, mango, grape, and watermelon. You should be cautious when consuming Cannapunch drinks, though. They contain 100mg of THC. To facilitate safe consumption, Cannapunch provides a convenient measuring cup with each bottle for ultra-accurate dosing.


1906 is a highly professional brand that offers a variety of products for different purposes, best believe they excel in their respective purposes. Their Midnight product is excellent for inducing natural and relaxing sleep. It is specifically designed to relieve body pain and tension. ‘Chill’ is perfect for soothing sore muscles and even an overactive mind. ‘Love’ is a well-known aphrodisiac made from herbs that help escalate blood flow in the pelvic region, thus, increasing libido. ‘Go’ helps enhance performance and gives you a burst of alertness and focus. ‘Bliss’ is designed to provide you with that happy mood burst that can very well make your day. 1906 uses a lipid micro-encapsulation process that allows you to feel the edibles very quickly with a timeframe of 20 minutes or less. In terms of production, be rest assured that 1906 is pushing the heights professionalism in conducting processes.

Colorado is undoubtedly the best place to fish for CBD edibles. There are so many options out there for you to try out. Just remember to start small and gradual if you are new to edibles’ usage to ensure things don’t get out of control. Besides that, you are in for a pleasant experience.

Church Wrongful Termination Suit in Sonoma County

sonoma county church

Recent news updates reveal that judge at Sonoma County Superior Court has exercised power against a previous parish office manager. This incident is related to the St. Apollinaris Sonoma county church of Napa and involved officer revealed that she was fired right after rising the issue related to misuse of collected funds in the church. This is a matter of wrongful termination attorney.

As per a tentative statement issued by Judge Allan Hardcastle by the beginning of this month, Jo Savage, who was an employee of the same church for past 28 years, has not provided any solid evidence to prove that her termination from church on 7th May 2015 was resulted due to retaliatory response towards all the allegations she made against Father William Donahue of St. Apollinaris church.

Reports reveal that a day before the issuing of termination statement, Savage had a meeting with Monsignor Daniel Whelton. Note that he is a vicar of priests in the Santa Rosa Catholic Diocese. However, judge Hardcastle in his recent statement said that Savage was not able to present a causal link between the firing and the meeting leading to wrongful termination attorneys.

Hardcastle also wrote that the court has not found any solid evidence or testimony regarding the matter. There is no indication if Father Donahue at Sonoma county church was aware of the complaints and concerns raised by Savage; that she has otherwise discussed with Diocese.

In the countersuit, the church officials also accused Savage of doing huge mistakes and negligence in the parish account management. The church members said that Savage was also responsible for the huge tax penalties of $70,000. According to them, Savage used parish funds for making her personal credit card payments and that too without any explanation.

The church also claimed that Savage failed to get supportive documents from her daughter for the expenses of around $270,000 made for youth ministry.

On the other side, Savage claimed that the father, Donahue, remodelled a few parts of the rectory without hiring any certified or licensed contractor. She also stated that the constructions were carried out without proper permit while violating the safety, building and fire codes. Other than this, clams say that Father also hired an unqualified principal to conduct the management at Parish school.

However, during the proceedings, Hardcastle observed that savage was not able to present any solid proof regarding her termination and other claimed activities against Donahue. Various details presented by both the parties reveal that termination of Savage happened just because of the poor work performance.

After the decision, the people associated to Sonoma county church also said that they are happy with the decision. Moran, a partner, also added that Father Donahue has played an important role in managing funds of the parishioners from the past several years and they are happy that the court gave a statement in favor of his commitment.

Judge Hardcastle also rejected the complaint made by Savage that Donahue and his partners tried to defame her by spreading some rumors around. According to the judge, none of those rumors could be related to Father Donahue.

Secrets of the Knights Templars

Knights Templars

Cannabis has become the new holy grail medicine at least in the United States of America. The history of Templars has been rather controversial. Moreover, everyone is aware that Friday the 13th is heavily associated with bad luck. But people rarely know that the reason behind this is because back in 1307, on Friday the 13th, various Templar properties were raided and every Templar found was arrested on the spot. This also included Grandmaster Jacques de Molay. Everything in their possession was seized and locked up in inventories.

Brief Introduction About the Templars:

The Templars consisted of fifteen thousand members during their peaking era. This number was rather impressive, taking in account that they existed during the late 1200s. They were scattered around Europe and Middle East and had acquired multiple properties, and hence, great piles of wealth, which was well maintained and taken care. They did not spare their snitches and reportedly burned them alive. They can definitely be termed as the legends in the world of cults and gangs.

Knights Templars

The Templars and Cannabis – the Holy Grail Drug

The holy grail drug and the templars have had a long relationship. There existed and Islamic Cannabis Cult who were known as the ‘Assassins’ or the ‘Hashishins’. They were considered the anti-heroes or the controversial heroes of the era of the Crusaders, and the Knights Templar. Moreover, they were accused by their enemies for sacrilege, drug taking, conducting sorcery, and the sexual orgies. The Assassins and the Templars were known to have some ‘cultural exchanges’, meaning that they were involved in same or similar activities and cannabis was used as ingredient in their various activities. When members were initiated into the Hashishins, they used to prepare a powerful for of hashish as they described it as a portal to get visions of paradise. Seems like they were aware of cannabis benefits back then.

What were the cannabis benefits back then?

Knights Templars

A potent form of hashish was known to put the person in a coma which made the person feel as if they had left their body and entered another world. Hashish is an Arabic word which literally means herbage or grass. Any person who had this drug was known as the healer as the people in those times were very well aware of cannabis benefits. The Templars were intrigued and infused hashish or cannabis into their culture and hence introduced it to Europe. The Templars were impressed because, they heard Arabian stories, and through their experience in the Middle East, they saw the Sufis, and the Assassins, expand their consciousness. The Templars further used it in various other products and even used it as an effective antiseptic. Cannabis was proven to be the safest medicine especially for the treatment of different types of epilepsy. When Cannabis reached Jerusalem, it was given the title of ‘elixir of Jerusalem’ because of its participation in maintaining their health, longevity, and strength. Moreover, it was also used in ointments which effectively treated wounds and various skin diseases.

Symbolism in Antique Rugs

Antique Rug

For those who work with antique rugs, the different patterns are more than just reflective of the designer’s wishes. There are important symbols that have been woven into each rug. From Turkish rugs to Persian rugs, to Moroccan, Oriental, and more, the symbolism that is found in every rug reflects the culture of the people.

A rug expert can tell where the rug was created, sometimes down to the town itself thanks to the symbolism. When you learn how to read the symbolism in antique rugs, you can get to know more about the origin, culture, and thinking of the people who created this remarkable product.

Persian or Oriental Rug?

The first step is to understand the differences between the various antique rugs. Of the major types of rugs, there are similarities and strong differences that will help you tell them apart.

Oriental Rugs: These are rugs created in Asia running from the Middle East through India and finally China. The hand-knotted types are a sign of authenticity.

Persian Rugs: Considered the standard by which all other rugs are measured, Persian rugs are part of the Oriental rug family, but only this type of rug is made in Iran.

So, a Persian rug is an Oriental rug, but an Oriental rug is not necessarily a Persian rug. Once you know the difference, then you can examine the different parts of the rug.

The Parts of the Rug

A typical rug is made up of several parts that are woven together to form a whole. The symbolism can be found in any part of the rug depending on the creator and where they live. The different parts include the following;

  • Field: This is the background of the rug
  • Main Borders: The main border is the outside section which is usually wide.
  • Guard Border: This is the thin section on the inside of the main border.
  • Corner Brackets: These fit the corners of the run inside the guard boarder.
  • Medallion: A prominent feature in the center of the rug.

There is usually a motif to every rug, which is an overall pattern found across the parts of the rug or concentrated in the medallion.

You may need an expert to tell you the age of a rug, which is an important buying consideration. Do not let a little dirt or wear fool you in terms of its age.

Moroccan Rugs

The land of northwest Africa is filled with white sand but is also the home to nomadic tribes that have a strong Islamic influence combined with African heritage. While Moroccan rugs are relatively recent, they are distinctive in their shaggy appearance.

While there is only one main type of Moroccan rug, there are many symbols that can be found inside each design.

  • Bird
  • Barley
  • Crab
  • Spider
  • Eye
  • Dragon
  • Frog
  • Finger and More

Oriental Rugs

You’ll find that this type of rug relies on the colors to demonstrate its uniqueness. For Oriental rugs, the colors have the following meaning;

  • White: Purity
  • Red: Wealth, Beauty, Luck, and Faith
  • Blue: Truth, Solitude, and the Afterlife
  • Brown: Fertility
  • Yellow: Power, Glory, and Joy
  • Orange: Humility, Devotion, and Piety
  • Black: Morning or Destruction

Green represents the Prophet Mohammed and is rarely used. Some of the symbols that you’ll find in Oriental rugs include, but are not limited to the following;

  • Boteh: The seed of life and fertility
  • Dragon: Wisdom, power, and good fortune
  • Mihrab: The Paradise Gateway
  • Camel: Endurance, strength, and blessing
  • Lotus: Rebirth and immortality
  • Lily: Purity and spirituality
  • Ram Horns: Male fertility, bravery, and strength
  • Tree of Life: Symbol of immortality and the afterlife
  • Birds: Symbols of good luck

Of the symbols found in Oriental rugs, many are shared in Persian rugs.

Persian Rugs

Because of the complexity and dedication required to create a Persian rug, they are considered the finest of them all. The wool is unique, offering long, durable fibers that are hand woven. The single looping knot used when woven is a trademark of Persian rugs. There are four types of Persian rugs.

  • Boteh: A common pattern in the shape of a tear drop and pear-shaped figure. Symbolizes the garden
  • Gol: Octagon patterns symbolizing the foot of an elephant.
  • Gul: A motif of flowers
  • Herati: A diamond-shape surrounding a floral head with leaves.

Popular symbols found in Persian rugs include a flying eagle, hunting dog, tree of life, lily, lotus, and paradise bird. All of which carry similar meanings as with Oriental rugs.

Turkish Rugs

Since the 13th century, Turkish rugs have been recognized for their unique pattern, beautiful weaving, and durable nature. The different types of Turkish rugs include the following;

  • Kazak: Made in Armenia, plenty of geometric designs
  • Kilim: Flat-weave goat-hair rugs, nearly waterproof
  • Oushak: Made from wool and silk, uses earth tones
  • Soumak: Stronger than Kilim, bright and vibrant colors

The symbolism on Turkish rugs is varied, including many symbols you find on Oriental and Persian rugs. They include the following;

  • Stars: Stars affect the destiny of people. Seeing a star in a dream is a sign of being happy
  • Pomegranate: Fertility
  • Eye: Wards off evil
  • Fruits: Along with cereals, fruit also symbolizes fertility
  • Trees: Represents regeneration.
  • Ram horn: Health, masculinity, and respect
  • Swastika: In older rugs a swastika which before Nazi Germany was considered a symbol of good luck.

There are many other symbols as well, including some that may not be expected such as the comb which represents cleanliness.

You’ll find many symbols in antique rugs that come from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The symbolism found in Turkish rugs, Oriental rugs, Moroccan rugs, and Persian rugs reflect the culture from which they came. Along with the various animals, creatures, and surroundings that provide a home for the people who make these remarkable rugs.

Sacramental Wine

If you ever participated at a Sunday church service in a Catholic church, for example, you probably noticed that, toward the end of the service, the priest is performing the holy rite of Eucharist. Also known as the Holy Communion, the process of Eucharist assumes taking wine and bread from the priest, after they have been consecrated in the altar, as a symbol of Jesus’ body and blood.

The Eucharist comes from the moment where Jesus shared bread and wine with His disciples during the Last Supper, telling them that this is how they should commemorate Him and celebrate His love for humankind.

So, the Sacramental wine is actually the wine that is served during the rite of Eucharist. For the Catholic Church and other Christian churches, this ritual is extremely important, as it reminds everyone about the sacrifices Jesus Christ did in order to save us all. This particular wine is served after receiving the Sacramental Bread and it can be tested only during the holy ritual of Eucharist.

While at first the Sacramental wine was served directly from a special chalice, both by the clergy and laity, as it happened during the Last Supper, these days the ritual is performed by the priest with the help of a sacramental spoon. So, the habit of using the same chalice for everybody to drink out of it stopped, in order to avoid any accidental spilling of the Holy Blood from the chalice.

Also, it is worth mentioning that some churches will not approve the use of real wine during the Holy Communion, especially if children are involved. So, while red wine is still widely used as a Sacramental Wine during this rite, there are churches that will replace wine with pasteurized grape juice.

Another aspect worth mentioning is that not all churches use red wine, which is closer to the color of blood. Thus, in Western Christianity, in particular, white wine is used for this ritual, as a way to prevent the clergy’s clothes from being stained by accident with red wine. Some churches will add a small amount of water when preparing the chalice with Sacramental wine, while others prefer to keep the wine as it is, without adding water to it.

When it comes to the wine used for the Holy Eucharist, it is worth mentioning that only natural wine is approved. This means that the wine should be produced from natural grape juice that was left to ferment in normal conditions, without adding anything else to its composition. So, preservatives, flavors, or any other substances must not be present in the wine that will be consecrated during this ritual.

Still, a very small amount of spirits obtained also from wine, such as alcohol or brandy, can be added to the composition of the future Sacramental Wine, with the purpose of preserving it better during transportation. But, the rule for this is that the amount of added alcohol or brandy should not exceed 18% of the total quantity of the wine. Thus, not every wine gets the chance to become a sacred wine during the most important religious rite of Christian churches.

What is the Eucharist?

If you are a Christian, you probably heard about Eucharist, although if you didn’t, you probably know it under the name of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion, as it is also named. This particular event is considered very important for the entire Christian community and it is seen as a sacrament by the majority of churches.

Even if you are following another religion, it is impossible not to know the moment when Jesus dined together with its disciples for the last time, before has was betrayed and locked away by the Roman soldiers. Known as the Last Supper, the moment is presented by the New Testament and marks the moment when Jesus says goodbye from its disciples and warns them about what is about to come.

It is said that during the Last Supper, Jesus shared bread and wine with His faithful disciples, referring to the served bread as “His body” while the wine represented “the new covenant in my blood”. He knew that Judas was going to betray him, in spite of the fact that he also participated at this Supper, so Jesus decided to warn His disciples and share with them a Christian ritual that was going to last for millennia.

Commanding them to “do this in memory of me”, the association of bread with flesh and wine with blood was the way of Jesus to tell them that He was going to sacrifice Himself for the good of the humankind. Thus, even in our days, Christian churches practice the Eucharist as a way to commemorate Jesus’ sacrifice for us and continue His wish as left to his disciples during this supper.

So, during the sacred ritual of Eucharist, Christians receive from the priest a piece of bread, which can be leavened or unleavened, according to church, and a sip of red wine. Still, there are churches that may prefer using grape juice instead of wine. But, before serving these two to the people inside the Church, the priest will consecrate it inside the altar, as the Holy Bible foresees.

While in some churches everybody that wishes to receive the Eucharist can do so, some require a confession in other to receive the “Holy body and blood” of Jesus, as the bread and wine are seen during this rite. This celebration usually takes place during the Sunday church service, so it can be seen every Sunday of the week and people can be part of it each time. It is part of the church service on a constant basis, as a way for people not to forget the pain and sufferance Jesus went through when He gave up His life for the salvation of humanity.

There are some Christian churches that will recreate the scene of the Last Supper, as a way of recognition for Jesus’ sacrifice and to raise awareness among people about the deep meaning of this moment, which was very important for the entire Christianity as we know it. Practically, the entire Supper was a ritual that was going to predict what will happen, while showing people, through His disciples, the fact that He did everything out of love and compassion.

During the supper, Jesus tells His disciples that they should love each other as He loved each of them and that they were always His friends and not His servants. At one point in His speech, Jesus also tells them that He will be betrayed and sold and that this will be done by one them. Each Apostle denied that he was going to do that to Jesus, yet, He told them that it was true that His betrayer was among those that were present at the supper.

Jesus tells them that He will let everyone know who the betrayer is, as soon as He will take a piece of bread, dip it in His dish, and then hand it to the one that will sell Him. Thus, when this happened, the piece of bread was given to Judas, as the Bible presents.

So, we can say that the Eucharist is one of the most important Christian rites, considering the importance of the previously mentioned events for the history of the Christian religion. After the supper, Jesus was sold by Judas and was captured by the Roman soldiers in the Gethsemani Garden, which was Jesus’ favorite praying place.
Knowing that Jesus went there to pray again, Judas sent the soldiers there, in order to close his part of the deal. After being captured and locked, Jesus went through a trial and ended up being crucified.

It is easy to see why the Last Supper has such a great importance and why the holy rite of the Eucharist means so much for each Christian. It is believed that Jesus is present in the bread and wine served during this ritual. Some believe that these two actually transform into Jesus’ body and blood, during the prayers of the priest.

Others think that Jesus is present in the form of bread and wine, while some believe that He is spiritually present during the ritual. Thus, the Eucharist has a deep meaning for every person that believes in Jesus, God, and acknowledges the happenings presented by the Holy Bible.

Each time a Christian receives the Eucharist, for him or her the moment symbolizes the gesture Jesus did for His disciples, during the Last Supper, as a way to show them His love and appreciation. Thus, for Christians, this is a symbolic way to receive Jesus’ love and to keep in mind everything He did for us, not just through His sacrifice but also during His entire activity.

How is a New Pope chosen?

Thousands of people flock to St. Peter’s square in Rome to celebrate the announcement of the new Pope. The moment white smoke comes out from the chimney stack of the Vatican everyone knows that the new Pope is elected. The smoke signals that the hours of the election are finally over. People elated at the prospect burst into cheers of joy for their new church leader. The nominal person on the street though has no clue that it takes many hours of debate and meetings to decide who will be the new Pope. Here we reveal how a new Pope gets elected. How the Roman Catholic church acquires a new Pontiff.

It is the oldest voting system in the world, and many of its traditions have been unaffected for spans of decades. The Conclave which accurately means “locked with a key”, takes us back to a time when Cardinals were locked in till they chose a new pope. The election will take place amongst locked doors.

The meeting begins with a morning mass in St. Peter’s Basilica. In the afternoon the 150 Cardinals, those under 80 years old enter the Sistine Chapel and take a pledge of secrecy. The automatic penalty of excommunication will come into effect if they break their promise. After receiving the promise of confidentiality, preparations are made for the election by secret ballots. The Cardinals cast their lots. They choose three Cardinals that will collect the votes, three more cardinals to count the votes and three others to assess the results. Printed on the ballots the words “Eligo in Summum Pontificem”, which means,“I elect as Supreme Pontiff”.

Each voter writes the name of one applicant on the lower half of the ballot and folds it in half. Cardinals are not permitted to vote for themselves. Then in order, the superior Cardinals take their ballots to the altar. Each places the folded ballot onto a small disk, and then the ballot is dropped into a cup. Once launching the votes calculated, and the results announced, more than two-thirds of the majority is needed to declare a winner in this case. There must be 77 votes, and if there is no winner, this means that two more votes are still scheduled to take place during the afternoon. Voting lasts up to four ballots each day until there is a victor.


The tickets will burn after each session in an incinerator inside the chapel. If there is no victor, they burn the votes with a chemical that gives off black smoke showing the crowds on ST. Peters square that the choice of Pope still has to take place. If there is no decision, the Cardinals withdraw for a day of prayer. They will only vote for the new Pope deciding between the two names already taken. When the winner is elected, he will be asked: “Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff”? If the answer is yes, then the Pope takes on a new name. He goes into a small room to put on his new Papal clothing. Changing his red clothes for white ones.

When there are a winner white smoke and the ringing of bells, signals to the Cardinals and the excited crowd at St. Peters square, that they have chosen a new Pontiff to lead the church. The new Pope will appear in the balcony to announce a blessing over the people and hopefully a short speech.

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We’re the Franciscan brothers, helping you work towards realising that the presence and acceptance of God can make a tremendous difference in your life!

Our Mission

To bring back all the lost sheep. To rever Him. To celebrate His name.

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